Charcoal

Charcoal products can be produced from biomass sources such as charcoal from wood, woody agricultural products, the biogenic fraction of municipal wastes, nut shells, etc. The liquid and gaseous fractions obtained from biomass are a valuable fuel source; however, the solid fraction (charcoal) has the recovery potential of carbon black or as carbon adsorbent after applying an activation step. Charcoal is produced by slow heating wood (carbonization) in airtight ovens or retorts, in chambers with various gases, or in kilns supplied with limited and controlled amounts of air. Charcoal has the potential to improve soil properties, crop productivity, and carbon sequestration in soil. The most interesting temperature range for the production of the pyrolysis products is between 625 and 775 K. The charcoal yield decreased gradually from 43.5 to 31.0% for the walnut shell and from 38.3 to 25.4% for the spruce wood with an increase of temperature from 550 to 1150 K. The charcoal yield decreases as the temperature increases. The ignition temperature of charcoal increases as the carbonization temperature increases. The charcoal briquettes that are sold on the commercial market are typically made from a binder and a filler.